##### Curriculum

** Introduction: To Set The Stage**

In each of the Primary classes we will meet about 25-30 children working with two adults. In these schools, both adults in each class are trained in the Montessori approach and work together as a team. Some schools prefer to staff their classes with one certified teacher and one or more assistants. To become a Montessori "Guide" or "Directress" as they are called in some schools, the teachers went through a demanding course of graduate level study. Each classroom is fairly spacious compared to what we usually find in traditional nursery schools. It is clear that someone took great pains in designing the space, selecting the furnishings and creating an atmosphere of simple beauty. Several things stand out as being different from the typical classroom for young children. There are no blackboards

at the front of the room. There are no posters of cartoon-like animals, no cardboard alphabet hung on the walls, or the familiar collection of dozens of identical art projects.

Instead the classroom is divided into several logical areas by low open shelves, on which we see displayed an array of lovely and intriguing learning activities. We may not know what they are called, what they do or why they are used, but they draw our attention and make most adults visiting a Montessori class long to be a child once again. Although it may not be immediately obvious, there is an order to the room and a careful structure of how things are arranged. The teachers will tell you that their environment is divided up into several areas: one for Practical Life, one for Sensorial, one for Language, another one for Math and probably somewhat smaller areas for Art, Music, Geography and Science. History at the Primary level includes a fascinating series of exercises and activities to introduce a young child to the concepts of time and the early stories of how the Earth was created and how life and eventually people evolved on it. The exercises on each shelf are arranged in a highly logical order. They are placed in the room according to their logical category such as Practical Life or Mathematics; any logical

sub-grouping, such as pouring or fraction work; from the most simple idea to the most complex; and from the most concrete way of representing each concept to the most abstract. According to this scheme, materials are displayed on the shelves from the top-left corner to the right side, down a shelf and moving again from left to right, until we come to the lower-right corner. Each material isolates one concept or skill. Each has been designed so well that it "calls to the child", or more clearly said, it is so beautifully designed, that the children naturally want to work with it with little or no nudging

from adults. Each material has also been designed so that a child can check his own work; we call this a built in "control of error".

The intention of the materials is not to keep the children dependent on these artificial learning aids forever, but to use them as a tool to help children be able to work and learn at their own pace, to see abstract ideas presented in a very concrete three-dimensional way and to help them to understand.

The children normally come to school for five days a week. Most Montessori schools do not offer two- or three-day programs, because young children are incredibly responsive to consistency and order in their environment.

When a child comes to school only a few days a week, he never attains that consistency and order. In some schools, two three and four year olds go home at noon, while in many others they stay for the full day.

The children normally come to school for five days a week. Most Montessori schools do not offer two- or three-day programs, because young children are incredibly responsive to consistency and order in their environment.

When a child comes to school only a few days a week, he never attains that consistency and order. In some schools, two three and four year olds go home at noon, while in many others they stay for the full day.

**Basic Structure Of The Curriculum**

Dr. Montessori's research let her to conclude, that intelligence is not rare among human beings. It manifests itself in the natural, spontaneous curiosity of the young child from birth. Montessori observed that when children grow up in an environment that is intellectually and artistically alive, warm and encouraging, they will spontaneously ask questions, investigate, create and explore new ideas. She found that children, especially when they are young, are capable of absorbing information, concepts, and skills from their surroundings and peers almost through osmosis. Dr. Montessori argued that learning can and should be relaxed, comfortable natural process. The secret is to pay attention to the hidden nature of the child at a given stage of development and to design an environment at home and school in which they will begin to fulfill their innate human potential. Montessori as an educational approach is not designed simply to teach children basic skills and information. In addition to becoming culturally literate, children need to learn to trust their own ability to think and solve problems independently. Montessori encourages students to their own research, analyze what they have found and come to their own conclusions. The goal is to lead students to think for themselves and become actively engaged in the learning process. Rather than give the students the right answers, Montessori teachers tend to ask the right questions and lead students to discover the answers for themselves. Learning becomes its own reward and each success fuels a desire to discover even more. Dr. Montessori found that at every age level, students learn in different ways at different rates. Many learn much more effectively form direct hands-on experience than from studying a textbook or listening to a teacher's explanations. But all students respond to careful coaching with plenty of time to practice and apply new skills and knowledge. Like the rest of us, children tend to learn through trial, error and discovery. Montessori students learn not to be afraid of making mistakes. They quickly find that few things in life come easily and they can try again without fear of embarrassment.

**Yearly Cultural Curriculum**

Astronomy | The Universe. The Solar System |

Geography | The Earth, Study of the Globe, Continents, Land and Water Formations, Oceans and Zones. |

Racial Groups | Native American, Caucasoid, Negroid, Mongoloid, Composite Group, Myself, My Family, Children around the World, People around the World |

Role Models | Famous Personalities from around the World |

Music Composers | Famous Composers and Music from around the World |

Human Values | Truth, Right Action, Peace, Love, Non-Violence, Compassion, Self-esteem, Kindness, Respect, Human Differences and Similarities |

History | Early Life on Earth (Animal and Plant), The Needs of Man, Days of the Week, Months of the Year, Seasons of the Year, Calendar, Early Civilizations, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Modern Ages |

Human Anatomy | Health and Physical Hygiene, The Food Pyramid, Cleanliness and its importance, Exercise, Parts of the Body, Senses of the Body, Internal Organs, Emotions |

Biology | Living – Non Living, Animal - Plant |

Botany | Fruits and Vegetables, The Plant, The Leaf, The Flower, The Root, The Seed, The Stem |

Zoology | Vertebrate – Invertebrate, The Five Groups of the Vertebrate, The Fish, The Amphibian, The Reptile, The Bird, The Mammal, The Insects |

Science | Observation Table, Magnifying Glass, Sink and Float, Magnetic – Non Magnetic, Three Forms of Matter: Land – Air – Water, Animal – Plant – Mineral, Weather, Clouds, The Clock |

Community | My Community, The Farmer, The Policeman, The Dentist, The Fireman, The Veterinarian, The Librarian, The Postman, The Doctor, The Nurse, The Banker |

Field Trips | Pumpkin Patch, The Police Car/The Dentist come to school, The Fire Department, The Pet Store, The Library, Tide Pools, Picnic |

**The Montessori Curriculum Integrates Knowledge**

The Montessori curriculum is organized as an inclined spiral plane of integrated studies rather than traditional model in which the curriculum is compartmentalized into separate subjects with topics considered only once at a grade level. Lessons are introduced simply and concretely in the early years and are reintroduced several times over the following years at increasing degrees of abstraction and complexity. The Montessori course of study is an integrated thematic approach that ties the separate disciplines of the physical universe, the world of nature and the human experience. Literature, the arts, history, social issues, civics, economics, science and the sturdy of technology all complement each other in the Montessori curriculum. This integrated approach is one of Montessori's great strengths. As an example, when Elementary Montessori students study Africa, they look at the physical geography, the climate, ecology, natural resources and the ways in which people have adapted to their environment: food, shelter, transportation, clothing, family life and traditional cultures. The might read African folk tales, study great African civilizations and endangered species, create African masks and traditional instruments and make African block print T-shirts in art, learn some Swahili, study dance and music and prepare some typical meals from various African cultures. Guest speakers, performers and friends of the school help to make the curriculum come alive through their memories, talents and personal experience.

**The Practical Life **

Success in school is directly tied to the degree to which children believe that they are capable and independent human beings. If they knew the words, even very young children would ask: Help me learn to do it for myself. As we allow students to develop a meaningful degree of independence and self-discipline, we also set a pattern for a lifetime of good work habits and a sense of responsibility. In Montessori, students are taught to take pride in their work. Independence does not come automatically as we grow older; it must be learned. In Montessori even very small children can learn how to tie their own shoes and pour their own milk. At first shoelaces turn into knots and milk ends up on the floor. However, with practice, skills are mastered and the young child beams with pride. To experience this kind of success at such an early age builds a self-image as a successful person and leads the child to approach the next task with confidence. Working with nature, both in and out of the classroom helps Montessori students integrate conceptual science with practical-life skills. Students of all ages experience the excitement of watching their seedlings develop into beautiful flowers for a floral arrangement to decorate their classroom with edible vegetables to prepare for a midmorning snack. In a very real sense, Montessori children are responsible for the care of this child size environment, which is why Dr. Montessori called it a "Children's House" or "Community".

They sweep, dust and wash mirrors and windows. They set tables, polish silver and steadily grow in their self-confidence and independence. The lessons in practical-life skills do much more than help children learn to wash tables. The process helps them develop an inner sense of order, a greater sense of independence and a higher ability to concentrate and follow a complex sequence of steps. As they get older, Montessori students learn all sorts of everyday living skills, such as using computers, household cleaning, cooking, sewing, first aid and balancing a checkbook. They plan parties, learn how to decorate a room, arrange flowers, garden and do simple household repairs. Montessori builds many opportunities into the curriculum for students to gain hands-on experience.

Learning how to work and play together with others in a peaceful and caring community is perhaps the most critical life skill that Montessori teaches. Montessori schools are intended to be close knit communities of people living and learning together in an atmosphere of warmth, safety, kindness and mutual respect. Teachers become mentors and friends. Students learn to value the different backgrounds and interests of their classmates.

**The Sensorial Exercises**

A child interacts with the physical world through his senses. From birth, he will look, listen, touch, taste, pick up, manipulate and smell almost anything that comes into her grasp. At first, everything goes into the mouth. Gradually he begins to explore each object's weight, texture, and temperature. He may watch something that catches his attention, such as a butterfly, with infinite patience. The Sensorial curriculum is designed to help the child focus his attention more carefully on the physical world, exploring with each of his senses the subtle variations in the properties of objects.

At first, the child may simply be asked to sort among a prepared series of objects that vary by only one aspect, such as height, length or width. Others challenge him to find identical pairs or focus on very different physical properties, such as aroma, taste, weight, shades of color, temperature or sound. These exercises are essentially puzzles and they tend to fascinate the children because they are just difficult enough to represent a meaningful challenge. Each has a built-in control of error that allows the child who is observant to check his own work. All the Sensorial exercises are essentially lessons in vocabulary, as the children master the names of everything from sophisticated plane and geometric figures to the parts of familiar plants and animals. As the Eskimos demonstrate to us with 26 different words the snow, we observe that as the children learn the correct names for things, the objects themselves take on meaning and reality as the child learns to recognize and name them.

Why is it so important to educate the young child's senses? We certainly don't believe that we can improve a child's hearing or sight through training. However, we can help children pay attention, to focus their awareness and to learn how to observe and consider what comes into their experience. In a way, the Sensorial curriculum accomplishes something like a course in wine tasting or music appreciation; one learns to taste, smell or hear what is experienced with a much deeper awareness and appreciation. These exercises can help the children learn and appreciate their world more fully.

Some people have heard, that in Montessori the children are taught there is only one way to work with each material. In truth, the children explore and discover all sorts of creative work with them. For example, they will construct the Tower horizontally or line up two edges to create a vertical stairway. The children will also build the Pink Tower in various combinations with the Brown Stairs along with some of the other Sensorial materials.

Each set of cylinders is constructed to vary in a regular sequence by either diameter, depth or both. The children remove each cylinder in turn, carefully placing it in order on the table. Once all 10 cylinders have been removed and placed on the table, the children take each in turn and find the hole into which it fits perfectly with the tip of the cylinder flush with the top of the cylinder block. If they've made a mistake, the children can normally see it for themselves because all 10 cylinders will not fit correctly.

The children quickly begin to challenge themselves by attempting to "see" which hole is likely to fit the cylinder in their hand rather than trying to fit each into one hole after the other. After a while, they will begin to do the same exercise with their eyes blindfolded, relying on touch alone. When they are ready for a great challenge, the children will mix the cylinders from two, three or all four blocks together and try to fit them into the corresponding holes.

Normally it is simply a cloth bag or box with a hole for their hands in which they touch and manipulate objects that they cannot see. One activity is to place things that are familiar to the children inside, and challenge them to identify them by touch alone.

The Thermic Tablets - the thermic sense is the ability to distinguish among objects with different temperatures. The Thermic Tablets are a series of pairs of objects of identical size that are made from different material such as wood, stone and metal. The material tends to feel quite differently from each other at room temperature when lightly touched by a blindfolded child. The challenge is to match them by temperature. The language of temperature is also taught: hot, cold, hotter, hottest, warm, warmer, warmest, cool, cooler, coolest etc.

The Montessori Bells extend the child's ability to distinguish sounds into each area of musical pitch. They are a lovely set of bells fixed to a wooden base. Each bell is tuned to either a whole or a half note on the standard musical scale. The entire set comprises one entire octave, including sharps and flats. The set includes one set of bells with tan bases for both half and whole notes and a second set in which the bases of the bells that sound the whole notes are painted white and those for the sharps and flats are painted black. At first children learn how to strike the bells with a small mallet to produce a clear note and damp them with a little felt covered rod. Then the teacher sets out two or three pairs of bells from the tow sets. The children match the pairs that produce identical notes. When they can do this easily, additional pairs are added until they can match the entire sets. A more difficult exercise challenges the children to grade the bells of just one set by pitch, from the lowest to highest notes. As they become more familiar with the bells, children will commonly learn how to play and compose little melodies.

The Silence Game helps the children develop a much higher level of self-discipline, along with a greater awareness of the sounds around us that most people take for granted. In this group activity, the teacher will get the children’s attention either by ringing a small bell or by hanging up a sign with the command "Silence". The children stop where they are or gather on the line, close their eyes and try to remain perfectly still.

The children sit still with their eyes shut and wait to hear the teacher whisper their name. When they hear it softly spoken, they silently rise and join together.

Sometimes the teachers will vary the Silence Game by challenging the children to carry bells across the room without allowing them to ring or they may use the calm atmosphere to introduce the children to guided visualization. At first younger children may not be able to hold the silence for more than 20 or 30 seconds, but gradually their ability to relax, listen and appreciate the perfectly calm environment increases. In many classes the Silence Game is an important daily ritual.

The children sit still with their eyes shut and wait to hear the teacher whisper their name. When they hear it softly spoken, they silently rise and join together.

Sometimes the teachers will vary the Silence Game by challenging the children to carry bells across the room without allowing them to ring or they may use the calm atmosphere to introduce the children to guided visualization. At first younger children may not be able to hold the silence for more than 20 or 30 seconds, but gradually their ability to relax, listen and appreciate the perfectly calm environment increases. In many classes the Silence Game is an important daily ritual.

In addition to removing the puzzle pieces and replacing them in their frames as a puzzle, the children learn how to match them against three sets of printed cards that represent the same figures in increasing degrees of abstraction. The first set represents each shape completely colored in on the card in the same size as the piece from the cabinet. The children simply cover each card with the matching puzzle piece.

In the second set, the geometric shapes are printed as outlines drawn with broad lines that leave the inner area white. In the third set, the figures are simply traced with thin lines. As the children gradually begin to recognize the more abstract representations of the three-dimensional objects, they are preparing themselves to recognize the little lines and squiggles of the written word.

Gradually, children learn the names of each of the geometric shapes. Once the children begin to read and can verbally identify the shapes, they will begin to label them with pre-printed name cards. Eventually the children will be able to prepare their own cards from scratch.

As they begin to read, children will learn to match geometric solids to a set of prepared label cards. Eventually, they will be able to prepare their own from scratch. This early introduction to Geometry continues in the Elementary Montessori program. After years of hands-on experience with geometric figures, children normally find it very easy to grasp more advanced concepts, from the definitions of geometric terms to the calculation of area, volume and circumference.

**The Montessori Approach To Reading, Composition And Literature**

The process of learning how to read should be as painless and simple as learning how to speak. Montessori begins by placing the youngest students in classes where the older students are already reading. All children want to "do what the big children can do", and the intriguing works that absorbs the older students involves reading; there is a natural lure for the young child.

Montessori teaches basic skills phonetically, encouraging children to compose their own stories using the Movable Alphabet. Reading skills normally develop so smoothly in Montessori classrooms that students tend to exhibit a sudden "explosion into reading", which leaved the children and their families beaming with pride.

Montessori teaches basic skills phonetically, encouraging children to compose their own stories using the Movable Alphabet. Reading skills normally develop so smoothly in Montessori classrooms that students tend to exhibit a sudden "explosion into reading", which leaved the children and their families beaming with pride.

Many parents find it curious, that Montessori children are not taught the names of letters; instead they learn the sound that we pronounce as we phonetically sound out words, one letter at a time. For a long time, children may not know the names of letters at all, but will call them by the sounds: buh, cuh, aah etc. This eliminates one of the most unnecessary and confusing steps in learning to read: the letter "A" stands for apple. The sound it makes is "aah".

Many Montessori classrooms use Sandpaper Letters that do not follow the traditional circle and line approach of teaching a young child to teach. Both cursive alphabets and D-Nelian letters (a modified form of italic printing that facilitates the jump to cursive) are available and used with excellent results. Another unusual result of the Montessori approach is that young children will often be able to write (encoding language by spelling phonetic words out one sound at a time), weeks or months before they will be able to comfortably read (decoding printed words).

It is not surprising that in the early years, as young children are beginning to compose words, phrases, sentences and stories their spelling can sometimes get a bit creative. For example, the word "phone" is frequently spelled "fon". Montessori teachers deliberately avoid correcting children's spelling during these early years, preferring to encourage them to become more confident in their ability to sound word out rather than risk that they will shut down from frequent correction.

The process of composing words with the Movable Alphabet continues for many years, gradually moving from three-letter words to four- and five-letter words with consonant blends (fl, tr, st etc.) double vowels (oo, ee etc.) silent e's and so on.

Early Reading Exercises - As children learn to work with the Sandpaper Letters, the teachers will lead them through a wide range of pre-reading exercises designed to help them recognize the beginning and later the ending and middle sounds in short phonetic words. One common example would be a basket containing three Sandpaper Letters, such as c, b and f. In addition, the basket will contain small dime-store objects that are models of things being these letters. The basket described above might contain little objects representing a cat, cat, bug, bag, bat, flag, frog, and fan. Other exercises will substitute little cards with pictures instead of the small objects.

Cards with the names of familiar objects are commonly found in most kindergartens. However in Montessori, children take this a bit further, learning the names of and placing the appropriate labels on a bewildering array of geometric shapes, leaf forms, the parts of flowers, countries of the world, land and water forms and much, much more.

Montessori children are known for their incredible vocabularies. Where else would you find four year olds who can identify an isosceles triangle, rectangular prism, the stamen of a flower or Asia?

Cards with the names of familiar objects are commonly found in most kindergartens. However in Montessori, children take this a bit further, learning the names of and placing the appropriate labels on a bewildering array of geometric shapes, leaf forms, the parts of flowers, countries of the world, land and water forms and much, much more.

Montessori children are known for their incredible vocabularies. Where else would you find four year olds who can identify an isosceles triangle, rectangular prism, the stamen of a flower or Asia?

When Will Children Start To Read?

There is typically a quick jump from reading and writing single words to sentences and stories. For some children, this "explosion into reading" will happen when they are four; for others when they are five and some will start to read at six. A few will read even earlier, and some others will take even longer. Most will be reading very comfortably when they enter first grade, but children are different and as with every other developmental milestone, it is useless to fret. Again, the children are surrounded by older children who can read and the most intriguing things to do in the classroom depend on one’s ability to read. This creates a natural interest and desire to catch up to the big friends and join the ranks of readers. As soon as children, no matter how young they are, show the slightest interest, we begin to teach them how to read. And when they are ready, the children pull it all together and are able to read and write on their own.

Command Cards are used with older children to suggest specific challenges in every area of the curriculum. For example, in Geography, a command card might challenge the child to look in the atlas and find the location of the largest inland lake on the Earth.

Command Cards are used with older children to suggest specific challenges in every area of the curriculum. For example, in Geography, a command card might challenge the child to look in the atlas and find the location of the largest inland lake on the Earth.

Phonograms are combinations of vowels in the English Language that form new sounds on their own, such as ee, ai, oa, and ou. Some phonograms, such as "ough", can make more than one sound. For example, ough has one sound in "cough", another in "although" and still another in "through". The children construct words containing phonograms using two Movable Alphabets just as they do with the consonant blends.

Montessori teachers will normally prepare little booklets, each of which contains many examples of one particular consonant blend or phonogram.

Puzzle Words - some words, most of which have come to English from other languages, just don't follow the familiar rules. Examples of Puzzle words are: the, was, you, they and their. They have to be learned by memory.

Literature and Research - At this point, we begin a systematic study of the English language: vocabulary, spelling rules and linguistics. The key to the Montessori Language Arts curriculum is the quality of the material children are given to read. Instead of insipid basal readers, even very young students are introduced to first-rate children's literature and fascinating reference material on science, history, geography and the arts.

Montessori Math Moves From The Concrete To The Abstract

Students who learn math by rote often have no real understanding of ability to put their skills to use in everyday life. Learning comes much more easily whey they work with concrete educational materials that graphically show what is taking place in a given mathematical process.

Montessori students use hands-on learning materials that make abstract concepts clear and concrete. They can literally see and explore what is going on. This approach to teaching Mathematics based on the research of Dr. Maria Montessori, offers a clear and logical strategy for helping students understand and develop a sound foundation in mathematics and geometry. The Montessori Math curriculum is based on the European tradition of "Unified Math", which has only recently been recognized by American educators. Unified Math introduces Elementary students to the study of fundamental of algebra, geometry, logic and statistics along with the principles of arithmetic. This study continues over the years, weaving together subjects that traditional schools normally ignore until the Secondary grades.

In operations concerned with measurement, geometry shows them how to perform their calculations. In operations concerned with figures, algebra gives a system of still more abstract symbols by means of which more complicated relationships can be comprehended. The calculations of area and volume, square roots are examples in which algebra, arithmetic and geometry are involved. For Montessori students, arithmetic, algebra and plane and solid geometry have never been arbitrarily separated. Four- and five-year old Montessori children can name geometric forms that most adults would not recognize.

Montessori students use hands-on learning materials that make abstract concepts clear and concrete. They can literally see and explore what is going on. This approach to teaching Mathematics based on the research of Dr. Maria Montessori, offers a clear and logical strategy for helping students understand and develop a sound foundation in mathematics and geometry. The Montessori Math curriculum is based on the European tradition of "Unified Math", which has only recently been recognized by American educators. Unified Math introduces Elementary students to the study of fundamental of algebra, geometry, logic and statistics along with the principles of arithmetic. This study continues over the years, weaving together subjects that traditional schools normally ignore until the Secondary grades.

In operations concerned with measurement, geometry shows them how to perform their calculations. In operations concerned with figures, algebra gives a system of still more abstract symbols by means of which more complicated relationships can be comprehended. The calculations of area and volume, square roots are examples in which algebra, arithmetic and geometry are involved. For Montessori students, arithmetic, algebra and plane and solid geometry have never been arbitrarily separated. Four- and five-year old Montessori children can name geometric forms that most adults would not recognize.

The Number Cards and Counters - After considerable experience with the more structured introductions to number and quantity created by the Number Rods and the Spindle Boxes, the child is finally ready to tackle the task of associating cards on which the numerals have been printed and objects to count. The child begins by arranging the numeral cards in order from 1 to 10. Then the child begins to count out the appropriate number of counters, placing them in parallel rows of two after the number one. Even numbers end with an even number of counters in the bottom row; odd numbers only have one. This begins to focus the child's attention on the concept of odd and even numbers.

Ten "ten" bead bars naturally equal the quantity of 100. Units of 100 are made-up of 10 "ten" bead bars laid by side and wired together to form a square.

Ten "hundred" squares stacked one on top of the other form a cube containing 1,000 "unit" beads. They are permanently wired together to form the thousand cube.

Using these concrete material even very young children can build and work with great number. In a typical early lesson with the Golden Beads, the teacher might challenge the child to "Bring me 3 thousands, 5 hundreds, 6 tens and 1 unit". While they will also work with prepared problem cards, children often enjoy thinking up numbers for themselves.

In one of the first exercises, the children explore the equivalencies of the decimal system. They learn that 10 "units" can be exchanged at the bank for a "ten" bar and that a "ten" bar can be exchanged for 10 "units". They also find that 10 "tens" can be exchanged for a "hundred" square, 10 "hundreds" for 1 "thousand" and that each can in turn be broken down into its equivalent in smaller quantity.

Using the Golden Bead material, the children can build two or more large numbers and add them together. By going through the steps of addition in this very concrete manner, the children have a clear impression about what addition means. They also come to understand the process of exchanging, as they count the new quantities in each of the columns and trade in groups of 10 "units" for 1 "ten" bar, which they place in "tens" columns: 10 "ten" bars for 1 "hundred" and 10 "hundreds" for 1 "thousand".

Once they understand how to add with the Golden Beads, Montessori children begin to use them to multiply, subtract and divide.

To help the child truly begin to grasp the idea of quantities from 2 though 9, Dr. Montessori prepared a set of colored glass beads, 1 centimeter in diameter, in which each quantity is represented by the appropriate number of individual beads wired together as a bar with a specific, easily recognizable color. In this material the "1" is represented by a single red bead. The "2" by 2 green beads strung together, the "3" by three pink beads and so on up through the 10 Golden Beads that represent a unit of 10.

The children work with the Short Bead Stair for many years, using the material to add and subtract exchange, borrow, explore multiples and for many other arithmetic processes.

Using the Ten Bead Bar and the Short Bead Stair material described above, the children lay out the numbers 11 through 19 concretely.

On the Tens Boards, the numbers 10, 20, 30, 40 through 90 are printed in the nine spaces created by the frames. They use the individual number cards to form numbers in the tens, such as 53, 24, and 79 etc. and use the Golden Bead "tens" and "unit" beads or Short Bead Stair to build their concrete representation along side.

The children lay the chains out, duplicating them by creating a second line of individual “ten” bars. At the far end, they place the "hundred" square or "thousand" cube, as appropriate. When working with the Thousand Chain, they also set out "hundred" squares after every 10"ten" bars along the chain, representing that the next 100 has been crossed.

In another exercise, they work with the number cards printed with the numbers 1 to 100 or 1 to 1,000 counting by tens. The children sort them in order and place them along the chain. They tend to be quite impressed when they first see the Thousand Chain laid out across the classroom floor.

There are two chains for each number: one set representing the squares of the numbers 1 through 10 and the other representing the cubes. Thus, the square of 5 is shown as a chain of "five" bead bars (the square of 5 = 25) and the cube as a chain of 25 "five" bead bars (5 cubed = 125).

The material also includes a set of bead bars connected to show the squares and the cubes of the numbers as actual squares and cubes. The children use the bead chains to skip count, working with number arrows similar to those use with the Hundreds and Thousand Chains.

For example, to subtract 822 from 1,000, the child would create four rows of stamps, beginning on the left with the "thousand", then the "hundreds". The "tens" and the "units" into the top row the child would place a single "thousand" column. Below, she would place nothing in the "thousand" column, 8 "hundreds" stamps in the "hundred" column, 2"ten" stamps in the "tens" column. Beginning with the "units", the child seeks to take two stamps away from the quantity above. Since the column is empty, the child turns to the row to the left (the "tens"), which is also empty. Eventually he finds that his only choice is to exchange the 1 "thousand" stamp for 10 'hundreds" which he places "tens" columns. Now he exchanges one of the hundreds for 10 "tens", which the child places in the "tens" column. Finally, the child is ready to borrow from the "tens" column to solve his problem. The child exchanges 1 "ten" from the "tens" column and exchanges it for 10 "units" and places them in the "units" column in the top row. From his top row contains the correct answer: 0 "thousands", 1 "hundreds", 6 "tens", and 8 "units" (1,000 - 822 = 178).

Naturally children can't depend on the materials forever. Can you see your child at 16 walking in to take the SATs carrying the Golden Beads? Dr. Montessori compared them to an airport runway, which provides a smooth surface on which the plane can roll faster and faster until it is built up enough to speed to fly. The entire purpose of the Montessori Math curriculum is to make the abstract concrete, until the child can close the eyes and visualize mathematical process at work. Step by step, the materials become less concrete and more symbolic.

Montessori uses a wide range of parallel materials and exercises to help the child extend his knowledge and gradually memorize the basic math facts that every one of us is expected to know. As parents, you will eventually begin to hear about materials with odd names like Snake Game, the Addition and Subtraction Strip Boards and the Negative Snake Game. Space doesn't allow us to describe every one of the Montessori Math materials, but your child would probably be delighted to introduce them to you.

When the children have begun to show that they are ready for still more abstract exercises, they are introduced to another series of Math materials at the Second Plane of Abstraction. For example The Bead Frames (or abacus) challenge the child to solve problems in a slightly more abstract process.

The Short Bead Frames allows the child to work with quantities up to 9,999. The Long Bead Frame uses quantities as large as 9,999,999.

**History, Geography And International Culture Come Alive In The Montessori Classroom **

With this goal in mind, Montessori teaches history and world cultures starting as early as age three. The youngest students work with specially designed maps and begin to learn the names of the world's continents and countries. Physical geography begins in the first grade with a study of the formation of the Earth, the emergence of the oceans and atmosphere and the evolution of life. Students learn about the world's rivers, lakes, deserts, mountain ranges and natural resources.

Elementary students begin to study world cultures in greater depth: the customs, housing, diet, government, industry, the arts, history and dress. They learn to treasure the richness of their own cultural heritage and those of their friends.

The children also study the emergence of human beings during the old and new stone ages, the development of the first civilizations and the universal needs common to all humanity. For older Elementary students, the focus is respectively on early man, ancient civilizations and early American history.

Montessori tries to present a sense of living history at every level through direct hands-on experience. Students build models of ancient tools and structures, prepare their own manuscripts, make ceremonial masks and re-create all sorts of artifacts of the everyday life of historical eras. Experiences such as these make it much easier for Montessori children to appreciate history as it is taught through books. Practical economics is another important element in the Montessori curriculum. Young students learn how to use money and calculate change. Older students compute the cost of a weekly meal for their class, plan a weekly budget, maintain a checkbook, organize and run holiday gift shops, sell produce they have grown, create and sell cookbooks. Students learn to recognize the value of a dollar; how long it takes to earn it, and what it can buy. Citizenship is yet another element that weaves throughout the Elementary curriculum. Students study

**Foreign Languages**

As part of the integral studies program, most Montessori Schools introduce a second language to even their youngest children. The primary goal in a Foreign Language program is to develop conversational skills along with a deepening appreciation for the culture of the second language.

**Hands-On-Science The Montessori Way**

Science is an integral element of the Montessori curriculum. Among other things, it represents a way of life: a clear thinking to gathering information and problem solving. The scope of the Montessori science curriculum includes a sound introduction to botany, zoology, chemistry, physics, geology and astronomy.

Montessori does not separate science from the big picture or the formation or our world. Students consider the formation of the universe, development of the planet Earth, the delicate relations between living things and their physical environment and the balance within the web of live. These great lessons integrate astronomy, the earth sciences and biology with history and geography.

The Montessori approach to science cultivates children’s fascination with the universe and helps them develop a lifelong interest in observing nature and discovering more about the world in which they live. Children are encouraged to observe, analyze, measure, classify, experiment and predict and to do so with a sense of eager curiosity and wonder.

In Montessori science lessons incorporate a balanced, hands-on approach. With encouragement and a solid foundation, even very young children are ready and anxious to investigate their world to wonder at the interdependence of living things, to explore the ways in which the physical universe works, and to project how it all may have come to be.

For example in many Montessori schools, children in the early Elementary grades explore basic atomic theory and the process by which the heavier elements are fused out of hydrogen in the stars. Other students study advanced concepts in biology, including the systems by which scientists classify plants and animals. Some Elementary classes build scale models of the solar system that stretch out a half-mile!

**In Montessori, The Arts Are Integrated Into Every Subject**

In Montessori schools, the Arts are normally integrated into the rest of the curriculum. They are modes of exploring and expanding lessons that have been introduced in Science, History, Geography, Language Arts and Mathematics.

For example, students might make a replica of a Greek vase, study calligraphy and decorative writing, sculpt dinosaurs for science, create dioramas for history, construct geometric designs and solids for math and express their feelings about a musical composition through painting.

Art and Music History and Appreciation are woven throughout the History and Geography curricula. Traditional folk arts are used to extend the curriculum as well. Students participate in singing, dancing and creative movement with teachers and music specialists. Students' dramatic productions make other times and cultures come alive.

**Health, Wellness And Physical Education**

Montessori Schools are very interested in helping children develop control of their find and gross motor movements. For young children, programs will typically include dance, balance and coordination exercise, as well as the vigorous free play that is typical on any playground.

With Elementary and older students, the ideal Montessori Health, Physical Education and Athletics program is typically very unlike that of the traditional model of "gym". It challenges each student and adult in the school community to develop a personal program of lifelong exercise, recreation and health management.

Many schools have limited space and facilities, but where funds and facilities are available for older students, the ideal Montessori environment offers a variety of facilities and programs, which can potentially include a room with stationary bikes and other exercise equipment designed for children, an indoor track, a basketball court a room for aerobic dance and perhaps even an indoor pool and tennis courts.

Again ideally, this fitness center would not be reserved for the children alone; school families would be able to use the facilities after hours, on weekends and during school hours when it didn't interfere with student programs.

One important element in the Montessori approach to health and fitness is helping children to understand and appreciate how their bodies work and the care and feeding of a healthy human body. Students typically study diet and nutrition, hygiene, first aid response to illness and injury, stress management and peacefulness and mindfulness in their daily lives.

Daily exercise is an important element of a lifelong program for personal health, but instead of one program for all, students are typically helped to explore many different alternatives.

Students commonly learn and practice daily stretching and exercises for balance and flexibility. Some programs introduce students to yoga, tai chi, chi gon or aerobic dance.

Children learn that cardiovascular exercise can come from vigorous walking, jogging, biking, rowing, aerobic dance etc. through actively playing field sports like soccer or from a wide range of other enjoyable activities such as swimming, golf or tennis. With older students, the goal is to expose skills and helping them to develop a personal program of daily exercise.

We would like to express our thanks to the Montessori Foundation and Mr. Tim Seldin, President.